Maze-Aficionados, Rescue Cats and Monkeys Create Online Casino Entertainment
Draven, a 2-year-old rescue cat from Pennsylvania, Mim, a purebred shorthair and Teddy, a ragdoll cat, all have one thing in common. They are therapy cats who spend their days traveling to hospitals, nursing homes, convalescent centers and other venues where people need a boost in order to proceed with healing and their daily lives. The concept of using animals to assist humans is relatively recent – even the seeing eye dog program has only been accepted for less than one hundred years, and for many of those first years, the idea was mocked by a large number of people. Yet today, it’s possible to find therapy animals of almost every species – dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, parrots and others. Therapy dogs are the best-known therapy animals but therapy cats are rising in popularity. Based on incidences in which monkeys have been documented caring for pet cats, mental health professionals are enthused about the idea that people who need a physical or emotional boost will benefit by bringing a cat into their lives.
When researchers at Duke University of North Carolina and the University of Rochester of New York saw the correlation between how monkeys and humans both relate to cats, they wondered about other types of parallel behaviors which may exist. The scientists chose to examine the link between how monkeys and humans view leisure activities, specifically gambling. Researchers noted that both monkeys and humans enjoy gambling. It’s clear that both monkeys and humans like to choose their games when they’re relaxed – for the monkeys, the best time is after they eat and for humans, oftentimes after a morning cup of coffee and crossword puzzle or maze. More than that, however, the researchers saw that both monkeys and humans seem to think alike while gambling – to such an extent that the researchers began to call gambling “monkey business.”
The Duke study was the first serious study of monkey gambling. The Duke researchers let rhesus monkeys play games. They observed as the monkeys learned how the game rewards operate as random rewards. This randomness, interestingly enough, heightened the monkeys’ interest in playing. Even when the monkeys didn’t earn their desired reward, they continued to search for ways to gamble – while eating, grooming, holding a cat or even while playing. Following the primary study, researchers at the University of Rochester decided to see if they could determine whether monkeys show the same interest in “lucky streaks” as humans. In a carefully designed project, the researchers taught the monkeys that rewards for gambling successes are random and follow no discernable pattern. The monkeys consistently behaved in ways that indicated that, although they understood the random nature of lucky streaks, they preferred to wait for lucky streaks and maximize those lucky streaks for their gambling pleasure. In summary, the researchers determined that humans are “hard-wired” to gamble and engage in “hot hand” activities, both in land-based and online casino games. This occurs even though the humans who are being observed understand that, rationally, lucky streaks are truly random and have no actual pattern or validity
Progress, learning, monkey-cat-relation and Maze Solving at the Online Casino
The learning tendency is an inherent part of the human race. Learning, conclusion drawing and progressing are constant activities that take place in the human behaviour and routines, and they tend to evoke positive emotions such as happiness, pride and relaxation. People all around the globe tend to use their affection for learning in order to progress themselves in particular and the human race in general. Other than that, the zest relating to learning was found as common not only to the human race but to other animals, primates and monkeys in particular. Apparently, monkeys share with human beings processes that relate to learning and concluding, as well as adapting themselves to the surrounding in result of the understandings they gain. Many researches have been done when covering the monkey-learning-process-topic; one of the most familiar one is the research examining monkeys climbing on a tree and reacting to fruits falling over their heads. The monkeys were found to understand this specific tree was “dangerous” and not only stopped climbing it, but also warned new monkeys which arrived the examination area. As for today, the learning process seems to take greater place in people’s everyday lives and even be present in areas which the need to conclude is allegedly absent.
Observing the high correlation between human beings and monkeys in the learning arena, science’s interest has increased different branches in which people claim to learn at, such as gambling online. Recent studies committed by the Rochester University in New York and Duke University in North Carolina show that gambling online is indeed an activity containing the “hot-hand bias” both in people and monkeys. Examining Rhesus monkeys while playing online gambling games, the researchers found direct correlation between the playing and the enthusiasm exhibited by the monkey. The monkeys showed profound interest in the games even when the rewards appear to be noticeably random. Yet again, the monkeys did not lose interest in haphazard rewards and seemed to draw conclusions after some tasks. As part of the different examinations done with the monkeys, another correlation was found between people and monkeys, as an activity done during gambling online. In great similarity to people, monkeys were found to show affection to caring other pets including cats, and being very relaxed by doing these actions. The caring for cats while gambling online, which earned the nickname “monkey business”, seemed to sooth the monkeys and improve functionality among the monkeys.
Human beings, in great similarity, also tend to pet their cats even during gambling online. The learning tendency that takes some energy and focus is being contradicted by an easy activity such as giving care to a fluffy animal. Carrying out easy actions during gambling online seem to be quite common, and among others it is ordinary to find maze and puzzle solving, Sudoku playing and even simply eating. While the learning tendency is an integral part of the human race in particular and animals in general, the online gambling kind of learning recently seems to be a joyful learning activity getting more and more popular world-wide, and even-monkey-wide.
No need to Monkey Around or Claw Cats with Mazes and Online Casinos
Monkeying around is definitely not on the agenda when trying to solve the mornings crossword puzzle, maze, or Sudoku challenge. For many people these are serious business and the concept of just monkeying around does not enter the equation. In fact in a number of cultures monkeys are very revered animals and looked up to and not thought of as naughty and cheeky. A number of research projects have been carried out showing how monkeys can be taught to gamble and use their basic instincts to get results when gambling, very similar to humans. So the concept of monkeying around in its traditional form does not have much grounding since monkeys are in fact very intelligent animals that can be taught almost anything and achieve good results. Monkeys are not the only animals that show a certain amount of intelligence. The cat is also a very intelligent creature and a very loyal one too. A cat is loyal to its owner and to the people that feed it and nurture it. The cat cannot actually solve a crossword puzzle but it can help a person concentrate by keeping him calm and content and secure.
The cat provides love and loyalty to people who sit at home doing puzzles or playing online casino games. A cat is a home loving creature offering warmth and loyalty. With the warmth and loyalty the cat keeps a person calm and focused as he concentrates on solving a crossword puzzle or in fact playing online casino games. The cat is a great partner for anyone who wants to play online casino games from home, in comfort. With a cat on the players lap, he remains calm and the gentle purring together with the warmth of his body helps to keep the player focused on his game of blackjack or roulette or one of the other games he has chosen to play. In addition a slow petting of the cat serves to increase the serotonin levels of a player which as everyone knows is the feel good hormone present in everyone. And, when someone feels good they are able to make better decisions that in turn help them perform better whether placing bets on a game of slots, keno or video poker or solving the crossword puzzle in the supplement of the newspaper after having read all about the trials and experiments on monkeys that gamble.
Abstract of Article: It is not difficult to observe the similarities between humans and monkeys. We see ourselves in them, in their faces, their facial expressions, their relationship to family and society and their sense of fun and adventure. Although there are thousands of wild monkeys all over the world, we have only recently discovered how remarkable they really are. Studying monkeys has led us to greater understandings about ourselves and the way our minds work. The blueprints on which we are based is closest to that of the monkey than any other animal. How much of the human experience is shared by monkeys has been the basis of research for a number of decades, nonhuman primate research was taking place from as early as the 1930’s with Harry Harlow and his study of surrogate mothers. More recently, researchers have been studying monkeys to help them understand the way the human mind works. The study of monkeys is a valuable way to help us understand the way that we as humans think, it can shed light on our evolutionary development and ultimately highlights the fact that the behaviors that we consider to be human, may not be solely human after all.
MONKEY’S GAMBLING AND TAKING CARE OF HUMAN CATS
There are over 200 different species of monkeys in the world. Some live in trees, others on the ground and they are all considered to be particularly smart and intelligent creatures. In the first half of the 20th century, Darwin published his Theory of Evolution in which he speculated that all life is related and man originally evolved from a monkey in a process called natural selection.
When it comes to testing our primitive instincts and behaviours the monkey is the perfect choice. Studies have already shown that monkey’s can be taught to recognize themselves in a mirror, use money and even communicate via sign language.
More recently there has been some fascinating research carried out by researchers that have taught monkeys the basics of gambling games in an attempt to observe the response of the monkey to a risky situation. Are monkeys likely to take risks, and if so what can we learn about human behaviours from their conduct?
To analyze whether out inability to distinguish between randomness and order is due to environmental factors or whether we were just born this way, Tommy Blanchard a Doctoral candidate at the University of Rochester together with Hayden and Wilke, Psychology professors from Clarkson University, conducted a study using juvenile rhesus monkeys. Their study published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition,[i] was to determine whether monkeys demonstrate the same biases as those displayed by humans when playing gambling games. If the same proclivity towards believing in a winning and losing streak was shared with the monkeys, the researchers could determine that this is a predisposition that is ingrained in our cognitive psychology.
The researchers created a computer game that the monkeys were taught to play. The game had three different screens. In two of the games the objects were positively correlated. In one of the games the winning object was on the right side of the screen whilst in the other game, the winning object was on the left side of the screen. If the monkey would gaze at the winning object he would be rewarded with some juice. The monkeys quickly learned to make smart decisions and when a clear pattern existed, the monkey correctly guessed the answer received his reward. The third screen however was negatively correlated. The monkeys would receive a reward either for picking the object on the right side of the screen or the left side of the screen.
When the monkeys were presented with the completely random screen their choices were made as if they expected their winning or losing streak to continue. In other words, even when the outcome was random the monkeys would follow a trend. The researchers conducted thousands of trials and the monkeys continued to display this bias consistently, even with specialized training to teach them alternative strategies, the monkeys continued to show the same tendency and favour the hot- hand approach.
A more recent study by researchers at the University of Rochester and Columbia University including Hayden[ii] demonstrate that rhesus macaques have such hearty curiosity they are willing to give up a surprisingly large portion of a potential prize in order to find out as quickly as possible if they selected the winning option at a game of chance.
In the study, monkeys were presented with a video gambling task in which they consistently chose to learn in advance if they had picked the winning option. The monkeys did not receive their prize of juice or water any sooner they were simply informed immediately if they had selected a winner. The researchers found the monkeys not only consistently selected the gamble that informed them immediately if they had picked a winner, they were even willing to select that option when the winnings were 25% less than the gamble that required them to wait for the results.
This study helps the researchers build a clearer picture of how curiosity is registered in the brain of both human and non-human primates and it will become instrumental in helping researchers figure out why this process is corrupted in some people such as those with an anxiety disorder or a gambling compulsion.
MONKEYS TAKING CARE OF HUMAN CATS
Cases of one animal keeping another as a pet usually occur among animals that are kept in captivity, but there are also documented cases of monkeys such as macaques keeping a pet from another species, such as a cat. It is no surprise that this behaviour has been most frequently observed among monkeys and apes who are known for their intelligence and intricate social structures and hierarchies.
A film crew filming the monkeys at the Monkey Forest in Bali, Indonesia in October 2008 noticed that a monkey seemed to have a kitten for a baby.
These ‘stray’ encounters seem to happen frequently on the streets (and in the wilds) of Thailand, India, Indonesia and other South East Asian countries that are home to the macaque.
Here is another short video clip of a beautiful friendship between a monkey and a cat.
Cats are solitary hunters they do not rely on a social survival strategy. They often live in colonies with each other. Monkeys also have a very intricate social structure and both monkeys and cats engage in an activity called social grooming that includes body maintenance like licking, scratching and delousing. Although monkeys and cats may share some common activities and characteristics, it is still highly unusual to ever observe a monkey actually adopting a monkey as her own and nursing it.
HUMAN AND MONKEYS SHARED BEHAVIOUR
Almost every study of monkeys to date has concluded that monkeys share many of the same traits, behaviours and even biases as human primates. Whilst it may be easy for us to understand how a monkey can learn a simple task by copying a human action, many behaviours such as empathy and communication have also been observed among non human primates.
A recent study at the University of St Andrews offers evidence that kindness and sharing among young chimpanzees is learnt from the pro-social behaviour of their peers. This regard for the welfare of each other has traditionally been presented as a uniquely human behaviour. This study provides the first evidence that both children and chimpanzees share common traits of altruism that can be learned from experiencing the behaviour of others.
When it comes to gambling, humans and monkeys also share many shared behaviours. The hot hand fallacy that is so common to players at the land based and online casino is the belief that your luck comes in streaks. This leads players to believe that a few winning games of online pokies is going to continue indefinitely and this prompts them to continue betting on the game even when luck is no longer on their side. Both monkeys and humans attempt to see patterns where none exist. It has been suggested that this hot-hand bias can be traced back to our evolutionary history when we were hunters and gatherer. When foraging for food, it was common for the food to appear in concentrated areas, this tendency then led to the hot-bias that is still in evidence today. However evolved we feel we have become and despite the enormous strides we have in technological innovation, our human DNA and that of our fellow non-human primates is overwhelmingly similar.
From the tiny pygmy marmoset in South America to the aggressive baboons of Africa and compassionate toque macaques in Sri Lanka monkey behavior challenges many of our ideas about what it means to be human.
Monkeys are smart animals who much like humans need socialization in order to thrive. They communicate with other monkeys though a variety of vocalizations and they are very committed to their young. They also use non verbal communication to connect with each other, sitting close together and touching each other’s faces. They use facial expressions to show emotions and have a very detailed hierarchy.
The many fascinating studies with monkeys over the years have not only increased our understanding of these incredibly intelligent creatures, they have also helped us understand some of the seemingly false or irrational decisions that we humans make.
The results of the experiments such as those carried out by Blanchard, Hayden and Wilke are even more interesting. The choices that the monkeys make when gambling are completely instinctive, they have not been taught about probability or luck, they act simply on their instincts. Humans, who have some understanding of probability and randomly occurring events, appear to gamble in the exact same way as the monkeys. This shared behavior must be based on some primitive instincts about the way the world works.
The similarities and overlap between monkeys and humans that has been observed in so many different areas of our lives goes much further than that of simple DNA, our shared beliefs and behaviors provide valuable insight into the ecological and evolutionary process. Once we can better understand some of the root causes of our behavior, we are better equipped able to develop strategies and therapies to help us overcome our basic and natural bias or instinctive impulses.
- For a beautiful documentary on monkeys by the world renowned broadcaster and Naturalist, Sir David Attenborough:
BBC – Natural World – Clever Monkeys Narrated by Sir David Attenborough http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/clever-monkeys/
2. What Monkeys Can Teach Us about Human Behavior: From Facts to Fiction
- Monkeys are just as curious as us and share our thirst for knowledge.
- The Chimp that learned sign language.
5. Study of Human and Monkey Brains Reveals Surprising Similarity Yet Major Differences
- Gambling primates: reactions to a modified Iowa Gambling Task in humans, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys
This maze item # smpl811qu
Warming Up in Canada with Hot Online Blackjack Action
As temperatures plummet, snow piles up and your spirits droop, you have a choice. You can sit and complain, or you can take advantage of the time that you’re stuck at home and take care of some of the chores that have been waiting for your attention for weeks, months or – probably — years. Now’s the time to give the dog his bath, clean out your closets, label your shelves, shampoo the carpet and gather your throw-aways for the summer’s garage sales. But when you’re ready to relax and wind down as your cat curls up next to you, check out the online casino where you can play entertaining and fun-filled casino games from the comfort of your living room chair. According to weather forecasters, the winter’s arctic vortex isn’t going to go away any time. So even if you were thinking of heading to the downtown casino, land-based casino gaming might not be a good idea this winter. Even if you could make your way down the icy streets you’d have to contend with frigid wind-chill factors, snow storms and sub-zero temperatures and will turn your toes into popsicles before you ever reach the casino’s front door. Anyway, the brick-and-mortar casino’s higher costs and lower payouts that don’t really make it worthwhile to head out in such a situation. There’s an alternative though. Today you can enjoy all of the benefits of gambling fun without battling arctic weather – simply sign into your existing online casino account and play your favourite casino games at any time on your laptop or desktop PC. The casino offers a wide range of game options including parlor games of American and European roulette, baccarat, craps, poker, scratch card, keno, bingo, sic bo, three- and five-reel slots and much more. Blackjack gamblers are in for a treat when they play at the online casino. Playing Online Blackjack allows gamers to enjoy numerous blackjack variations. Each variation has its individual rules and regulations, but all involve a combination of luck and skill to create an exhilarating gaming adventure of fun and excitement. When you play blackjack at the Canadian casino you can choose from any of the multiple blackjack options including Bonus Blackjack, Super Fun 21 Blackjack or Triple 7s Blackjack. The casino connects to your smartphone and tablet so you can play casino games at the mobile casino. Simply open your existing casino account on your mobile screen and click “Mobile.”Request the text link to enter the casino. You can play any of your preferred games for real cash prizes in the Real Mode or for free in the Free Mode. Regardless of your PC or Mobile casino venue you can collect lucrative casino bonuses which will provide you with no-deposit match bonus gaming credits, giving you multiple opportunities to play more casino games for more time for free. The casino offers you up to $500CA Welcome Bonus credits during your 1st week of casino action and up to $350CA in match points afterward.
Anyone can enjoy the op art of Yanito Feminoshi. Come and have a blast solving the optical art maze pieces that he creates and let the mind be challenged.
Many people today love to play solitary games and to enjoy solitary activities. This includes things like puzzles, solitaire and even maze work. Today, there is some incredible maze work with optical art by artists like Yanito Freminoshi. Yanito comes from a small village outside of Tokyo and he makes incredible visual illusion work. This work challenges the brain and allows people to really use their minds to think of combinations and ways through the maze. It stimulates the mind and creates a great activity for people. Today, the visual illusion work allows people to challenge themselves. They can share the maze work by Yanito Freminoshi, but they should make sure to attribute it to him and to offer maze solution options with a link back to the original. All of this is a great way to enjoy an activity that can be played by one person while stimulating the mind and soul.
Monkeys Love To Gamble! Blanchard’s study demonstrate that the hot-hand bias whereby we see patterns where none exist is common to both human and primates evolutionary history.
Introduction to Monkey Gambling Experiment:
Humans have a tendency to look for and rationalize patterns when none in fact exist. Even when the data shows that events are completely random, we continue to theorize and attempt to explain away the phenomena with a plausible reason. The reason we do this is because it is easier for our brain to work with similar objects and therefore has a tendency to group them all together. This holds true for grouping tangible objects such as people as well as for grouping ideas or events.
The phenomena of rationalization and the attempt to see correlations in independent events helps explain the human tendency to engage in risky behaviours such as gambling and unsafe sex. Scientists disagree whether this behaviour is a result of our cognitive disposition, in other words we were just born this way, or, is this learned behaviour that has been picked up in childhood.
As humans we engage in this pattern forming behaviour in many everyday instances. Take for example sports games, when we observe a player make a successful shot or goal, we then believe that he is more likely to follow up his success with another goal or basket. In terms of the probability of this happening, one successful outcome has no effect on a future result, each outcome is independent and the player is just as likely to score another goal as he was at the start of the game. Our tendency to perceive a pattern in unrelated events in sports games led to the term, the hot-hand phenomenon.
It turns out that humans are remarkably bad at understanding randomness. This leads us to see patterns where none exist and skewers our ability to make random choices.
To analyse whether out inability to distinguish between random and order is due to environmental factors or whether we were just born this way. Tommy Blanchard a Doctoral candidate at the University of Rochester together with Hayden and Wilke, Psychology professors from Clarkson University, conducted a study using juvenile rhesus monkeys. Their study published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, was to determine whether the monkeys would demonstrate the same biases as those displayed by humans. If the same proclivity towards believing in a winning and losing streak was shared with the monkeys, the researchers could determine that this is a predisposition that is ingrained in our cognitive psychology.
To measure whether monkeys believe in a winning streak, the researchers created a computer game that the monkeys were taught to play. The game had three different screens. In one game two objects appeared on the screen, the monkey could choose one of the objects by simply gazing at it. In one of the games the winning object was on the right side of the screen whilst in the other game, the winning object was on the left side of the screen. If the monkey would gaze at the winning object he would be rewarded with some juice.
The monkeys quickly learned to make smart decisions when presented with these two screens. When a clear pattern existed, the monkey correctly guessed the answer and was rewarded for his correct answer. The third screen however was completely random. This meant that the reward could be either for picking the object on the right side of the screen or the left side of the screen.
When the monkeys were presented with the completely random screen their choices were made as if they expected their winning or losing streak to continue. In other words, even when the outcome was random the monkeys would follow a trend. For example, if you are told to pick between a red and a black card, there is a 50-50 chance that the card you pick will be either red or black. Even if the black card is picked 4 times in a row, on the 5th time the card is just as likely to be black as it is red. Humans, and it turns out monkeys as well, expect to see some form of a pattern so that if the black card appears 4 times in a row it is now the turn of the red card to make an appearance.
The researchers conducted thousands of trials and the monkeys continued to display this bias consistently every single day over weeks of play. The monkeys had plenty of time to get over their bias and to change their results but even with specialized training to teach the monkeys alternative strategies, the monkeys continued to show the same tendency and favour the hot- hand approach.
Blanchard and his colleagues concluded that even when the monkeys were presented with a random distribution of rewards they still acted as if they were expected to find a pattern.
THE HOT-HAND BIAS
The findings of Blanchard’s study demonstrate that the hot-hand bias or phenomena whereby we see patterns where none exist is common to both humans and primates. This commonality infers that evolution has primed our brains to look for patterns even where none occur.
When a monkey hunts for food and finds some plants under a log, he assumes that there must be other similar plants in the area for him to eat, and will continue his search in the same area.
Humans, likewise not only make these same assumptions, they also thrive off and look for opportunities to create patterns. This is why people enjoy filling out crossword and Sudoku puzzles, finding the pattern and creating order helps us feel like we are in control of the event.
The hot-hand bias tendency also helps explain the reason so many people love to engage in risk taking activities such as gambling at an online casino. When we gamble we believe that we can control the end result and make some order from the randomness of the game. It also explains why so many people enjoy playing the stock market, they are always trying to find the pattern believing that if the stock go up one day, they are sure to come down the next. Attempting to make order among chaos is even more of a challenge for some people than others.
UNDERSTANDING THE BIAS
On a personal level, if we understand that our need to find patterns sometimes causes us to build incorrect assumptions and results, we could perhaps spare ourselves the pain of making unwise decisions that are based on previous information, it could help us achieve a less frustrated and happier life.
For EXAMPLE: If we spend time playing online pokies (slots) with the explicit knowledge that the bets we make are based on completely random results, we can enjoy a fun and suspense gaming session. Our time at the casino will not be spent trying to chase a loss or erroneously believing that the very next spin will result in a jackpot due to the fact that we have lost every single game so far. One of the most popular casino tales told involves a roulette table where the ball kept on landing in a black pocket. Soon enough players were swarming to the roulette table and placing enormous bets on the red pockets in the belief that it was now time for the red pocket to declare the winning ball. What ended up happening was that the casino managed to rake in millions of dollars until a red pocket win eventually occurred. Many, many players went home empty handed that night.
Likewise, when it comes to sports games, your team is not earmarked for a win just because they have scored a number of winning goals and therefore must be on a winning streak or on a roll, whilst we hope they do ultimately win, you should enjoy the game knowing that losing is also a strong possibility.
On a larger scale, understanding the hot -hand bias can help us understand and treat compulsive behaviour such as gambling addictions and enable us to help gambling addicts debunk their hardwired notions that their winning break is just around the corner. It may even help predict which players will later develop gambling addictions.
Investors, says Hayden “should keep in mind that humans have an inherited bias to believe that if a stock goes up one day, it will continue to go up”
Blanchard goes even further by suggesting that understanding the bias phenomena can help shed light on our understanding of free will. The biases in our decision making such as those that lead us to believe in a winning or losing streak, explains Blanchard, can help us understand the complex human mind. We like to think of ourselves as being rational human beings making decisions based on concrete information, when in reality we are not always aware of how or why we make certain decisions.
These findings also underscore the importance of the environmental context in which we evolve. The social and physical environment in which both the human and the animals live determines the cognitive messages and consequences that they internalize. If an animal is used to a great deal of order in his everyday life, such as food present in certain areas, he may be more hardwired to believe in logical patterns in other areas of his life. A human who has grown up in a largely random environment may be less likely to adhere as strongly to the hot-hand bias.
THE HUMAN AND THE MONKEY
Whilst we can certainly conclude that the human is a sophisticated being that makes decisions and acts based on a combination of rational statistics and heuristics, we also share some cognitive mechanisms with our primate relatives such as the hot-hand bias.
Despite the fact that human beings are by nature averse to taking risks, the hot-hand bias is valuable in that it helps scientists and psychologists understand that people will sometimes act against their own self interest if a feeling or irrational thought overtakes their logic. When it comes to gambling for example players can often lose large sums of money and therefore act against their own financial best interests.
The researchers from Clarkson University suggest that this hot-hand bias can be traced back to our evolutionary history when we were hunters and gatherers. A fallen apple on the ground would indicate that there were likely to be other apples nearby and hence an apple tree. This evolved tendency then led to the hot-bias that is still in evidence today. What is interesting about this theory is that however evolved we feel we have become and despite the enormous strides we have made when it comes to technological innovation and inventions, human DNA and that of our fellow primates is overwhelmingly universal and similar.
This humbling fact should also serve as a touching reminder that animals and humans have a shared evolutionary history and continue to share certain behaviours and beliefs. Although many Traditionalists tend to look for evidence that supports the claim that main is unique and more superiorly evolved than our fellow monkeys, the research conducted by Blanchard et al demonstrate that we are in fact fairly similar and share many common attributes with our fellow primates.